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Avoiding Plagiarism: How to Cite

Two-part Citation

There are two parts to a citation: in-text and full reference.

In-text Citation

An in-text citation appears in the body of your work, immediately preceding or following the use of information from another source.  Usually an in-text citation consists of the author's surname, the publication year, and/or page number.  Some citation styles, such as Chicago, use numbered footnotes.


APA MLA Chicago
(Brown, 1997) (Brown 22-25) 1. William Faulkner, Absalom, Absalom! (New York: Vintage Books, 1990), 271.
(Olson et al., 2010, p. 67) (Olson et al. 67) 1. Susan Peck MacDonald, “The Erasure of Language,” College Composition and Communication 58, no. 4 (2007): 619.


Full Reference

The full reference for each source cited within the body of your work must be given in a list at the end of the work.  The formatting of the references will depend on the citation style you are using. 




Poggi, C. (2012). Picasso's first constructed sculpture: A tale of two guitars. The Art Bulletin, 94(2), 274-298.


Poggi, Christine. "Picasso's First Constructed Sculpture: A Tale of Two Guitars." The Art Bulletin, vol. 94, no. 2, 2012., pp. 274-298. doi:10.1080/00043079.2012.10786041.


Peltonen, Kirsi, Noora Ellonen, Helmer B. Larsen, and Karin Helweg-Larsen. “Parental Violence and Adolescent Mental Health.” European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 19, no. 11 (2010): 813-822. doi: 10.1007/s00787-010-0130-8.

Citation Style Guides

For more examples on how to cite using the three most common citation styles (APA, MLA, and Chicago), please refer to these helpful guides:

Introduction to APA Style Citation

Citation and Documentation with MLA

Chicago - 16th Edition