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Summer22 Business 100 (Elliott)

Finding Definitions

For help with library/research terminology, scroll down to the glossary of terms.

For help with business terminology, consider consulting online resources. Do not cite these definitions in your assignments. These are only for you to familiarize yourself with their meaning.

  • Investopedia is a website that has lots of reliable and up-to-date definitions of financial terms used in the USA and worldwide.
  • Online Business Dictionary has definitions for common business terminology.

For help understanding environmental scans, start by consulting your class notes or textbook. You can also look online for information. Some resources to get your started:

Glossary and Terminology

A glossary of definitions for library, archives, and research terminology.


Archive:
This could refer to:
1. The University of Regina Archives and Special Collections. These collections include historical materials created by the University, archival material generated by U of Regina employees and alumni, archival material generated by important Saskatchewan citizens, as well as old and rare books and other materials.
2. Any collection of historical materials, whether physical or digital.

Article:
A short, focused piece of writing. Usually published in periodicals. In journals, these are usually 10-30 pages. In magazines and newspapers, these may be very short, or several pages long.

Authoritative:
The author and/or the text is assumed to be accurate or true. See also: "Reliable".

Bibliography:
This could refer to:
1. A list of works cited in an article or book.
2. A list of all of an author's publications and writing.

Book:
A contained, lengthy piece of writing. Likely to have a wider scope than articles. May be printed or digital. For university assignments, scholarly books are preferred in most cases. Books usually have one or more authors. They may also have one or more editors. Some scholarly books may have individual chapters that are written by different authors. To properly cite a book, you will need to know the title of the book, the title of the chapter (if the chapter has an author that is not the same as the author or editor of the entire book), the author, the editor (if the book is edited), the publisher and place of publication, and possibly more information depending on the book and the style of citation required.

Book review:
A short review of a published or soon-to-be-published book. These may be published in refereed  journals, but book reviews are not peer-reviewed. If you find a book review you would like to use in your assignment, find and use the book that is being reviewed. (Check the library catalogue. For help finding the book, contact your liaison librarian.)

Call number:
The University of Regina uses mostly Library of Congress call numbers. These start with letters. Print books and print journals have call numbers assigned to them. Use the call number to determine which floor a book or journal is on in the Archer Library.

Catalogue:
The record of the main collection of material owned by the U of R Library. It consists mostly of books and journals, as well as other types of material.

Citation:
The information needed to identify and track down a book or article. There are different styles and rules for citation in academic writing, including MLA style, APA style, and Chicago style. You can find support and help here, or look at Purdue University's OWL guides. Citation is required on university assignments. You should cite any quotations or paraphrases of information that came from your research. You do not need to cite common knowledge.

Common Knowledge:
Information that you did not have to research because most people already know it. In university assignments, if you are reasonably certain that most people would be familiar with the information you are citing, you may not have to provide a citation. A good way to decide whether to provide a citation is to ask whether you had to look up the information or if you knew it already; and whether your reader (your professor, instructor, or TA) would have to look up the information.
For example:
"Westjet is a Canadian airline" would probably not need a citation.
"Westjet was founded in 1996" would probably need a citation because many people would need to look up that information to verify it.

Copyright:
Laws pertaining to the right to use, reproduce, copy, and distribute a book, article, music or video recording, or other work. For more informtaion, see the U of R copyright homepage, which has information for students and faculty wanting to use materials.

Database:
An online search tool. Many databases search through journals and other periodicals and are used to find articles. Other databases are used to find statistics, data, images, music or video recordings, and other information. Library databases are available from the Library homepage (select "databases" on the main search box) or by clicking here. Databases for specific classes are usually listed in the class LibGuide under "Databases" or "Articles."

Digital:
Available in electronic format. Usually accessible with an internet connection, but could also mean available on discs. May or may not be mobile-friendly. Digital articles and books may be scholarly or peer-reviewed, or not. Content available through library databases is usually more reliable and authoritative than what you might find freely available online. Be sure to think critically about where the content is coming from and evaluate it carefully if it did not come from the U of R Library website or databases.

Edited:
This could refer to:
1. A book that has an editor in addition to one or more authors.
2. A periodical that is not peer-reviewed, but has had an editor or team of editors look at the articles before publication, like a magazine or newspaper.

Edition:
This could refer to:
1. A book that has been published in multiple editions. This may be numerical (e.g. Fourth Edition), or qualitative (e.g. Definitive Edition). Noting the numerical editions is an important part of citation. Qualitative editions are usually not mentioned in citation.

Electronic: See "Digital."

Inter-Library Loan (ILL):
Books and articles not available at the U of Regina Library can often be accessed by Inter-Library Loan. Both print and digital material can be ordered through ILL. ILL is free to all U of Regina students and faculty. Click here to order materials through ILL.

Issue:
Periodicals are typically published in issues which collect numerous articles together. The issue number is an important part of citation.

Journal:
A journal is a kind of periodical. Scholarly and peer-reviewed journals publish articles that are used in research. The title of the journal is an important part of citation. Journals are usually published in issues, and issues are usually collected together in volumes.

Microcards: See "Micromaterials."

Microfiche: See "Micromaterials."

Microfilm: See "Micromaterials."

Micromaterials:
Some periodicals and other materials are only available as micromaterials at the U of Regina Library. They must be viewed using special machines. For assistance accessing and using micromaterials, contact the Library Help Desk.

MLA:
The abbreviation for the Modern Languages Association. This could refer to:
1. The MLA style of citation and documentation.
2. The MLA International Bibliography, a database which includes many of the best articles in literary criticism. This database can be found as part of the Artemis Literature Resource Centre.
3. The annual MLA conference.

Modern Languages Association: See "MLA."

Monograph: See "Book."

Newspaper:
A newspaper is a kind of periodical. Newspapers are edited, and are not considered scholarly or peer-reviewed. They are useful for some kinds of academic research, but not always. To cite a newspaper article, you will need the article's author and title, the title of the newspaper, the page the article is on, the date of publication, and (if applicable) the edition.

Newswire:
Newspapers, news shows, and other news sources often get basic current news stories from services called newswires. These are often reliable sources of information on current events, but are not considered scholarly or peer-reviewed.

Online:
Content that is available through an internet connection. The Library Quick Find search and databases are online, and most (but not all) of this content is reliable and can be used in university-level research. Material that is freely-available elsewhere online may or may not be reliable. Before using freely-available online material, ask your professor or the Library Help Desk.

Paraphrase:
Using ideas or information that you found in your research, and putting these ideas and information into your own words. Paraphrase requires proper citation, the same as direct quotation.

Peer-reviewed:
An article is peer-reviewed if it had to be approved by the author's peers (e.g. other professors or other researchers) before publication. This means that it has been held to a very high standard before it was published. It is considered the gold standard for university-level research, and students are often told specifically to use only peer-reviewed articles for their research. Many Library databases and Quick Find allow you to check a box when searching so that you will only retrieve peer-reviewed articles. If you are unsure whether an article you have found is peer-reviewed, ask the Library Help Desk.

Periodical:
Something that is published periodically (daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly, etc.). Most journals, newspapers, and magazines are periodicals. Periodicals may be print, digital, or other formats such as micromaterials.

Print:
Print materials are physically printed, usually on paper. Books, journal articles, and other material can be available in print. Most of the U of R Library collection of printed materials can be found in Quick Find, and is stored on the main floor and 3rd-5th floors of the Archer Library (as well as the main collections of other U of Regina libraries).

Publisher:
The entity that is responsible for the production and distribution of media. For books, the publisher name, place, and year are usually an important part of citation. For articles, the year of publication is an important part of citation.

Quick Find:
Quick Find is the Library's main search tool. Use it to search the Library catalogue and many databases at once, finding books, articles, and many other types of material.

Quotation:
Using ideas or information you found in your research in the exact words the original source uses. Quotation requires proper citation.

Recall:
Recalling a book means that the person who checked it out is given one week to return it; it will then be held for you, and a message sent to you to let you know to pick it up. Recalling a book can be done through Quick Find: on the page for the book you want to recall, look for "Request Options" and follow the instructions.

Refereed journal:
A refereed journal means that the articles it publishes have been peer-reviewed. Please note that book reviews are not peer-reviewed, although they may be published in refereed journals; and other non-scholarly, non-peer-reviewed content may also be published.

Reliable:
The text is assumed to be accurate and true. Scholarly books and peer-reviewed articles are generally considered to be reliable. In some subject areas, and in some classes/assignments, other types of content may be considered reliable as well; ask your professor or contact the liaison librarian for your subject.

Scholarly:
A scholarly publication deals with a topic of academic interest, has research to back up its claims (including a bibliography or Works Cited section, and is usually written by a professor or advanced researcher. Books and articles may be scholarly. Scholarly publications are distinct from publications that would have popular interest.

Volume:
Many periodicals group their issues together into volumes. For journals that are peer-reviewed or scholarly, volumes are often organized by year. The volume number is usually an important part of citation.

Works Cited:
A list of Works Cited is included in MLA-style citation.