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Mathematics and Statistics

Essential Search Techniques: Boolean Operators, Truncation, and Phrases

Many databases, as well as Quick Find, allow you to use Boolean operators, truncation, and phrases in your search statements. Using these can make your searches more effective. Check out our Quick Find guide here to learn more.

Boolean Operators

The Boolean operators (named after 19th-century logician George Boole) are AND, OR, and NOT. Watch our short Boolean Operators video here to learn more. 

         cat AND dog    This retrieves items that have the word cat and the word dog.
  cat OR dog This retrieves items that have the word cat or the word dog.
  cat NOT dog This retrieves items that have the word cat but not the word dog. Use this with caution.

 

Boolean operators can be grouped with parentheses:

(cat OR feline) AND (dog OR canine)

Note: Most search engines do not require that Boolean operators be written in capital letters. However, a few do. If in doubt, capitalize.
 

Truncation

Truncation is used to retrieve items having various forms of words. It is especially useful for finding singular and plural forms of nouns.

In most database search engines, the truncation symbol is the asterisk ( * ).

manufactur*    This retrieves items that have manufacture, manufactured, manufacturing, etc.
 

Phrases

Phrases are sequences of words that appear together in the order specified. Use quotation marks to indicate phrases.

"image processing"   This retrieves items having this phrase, but not items in which image appears somewhere and processing appears somewhere else, but not next to each other in that order.